Earthquake Early Warning
Earthquakes are perilous and inevitable natural events, causing severe damage and loss of life.
There is no proven method to forecast the precise occurrence time of an earthquake nor its location or size.
Yet, utilising state of the art scientific methodologies as done in GeoSIG Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) solution, it is now possible to quite accurately assess the location and size as soon as an earthquake emerges using its non- destructive primary waves.
Thus, warnings about a potential strong shaking can be generated almost instantaneously , until destructive secondary seismic waves arrive.
Based on fast and reliable communication channels, this provides the crucial seconds to take measures which may help reduce catastrophic impacts of seismic events.
After an earthquake, GeoSIG Rapid Response (RR) solution provides analytic and thematic information on the aftermath of the earthquake in terms of shake maps consisting of observed ground motion parameters as well as estimated damage distribution.
Short time lapse video demonstrates the concept and operation of earthquake early warning systems available through GeoSIG.
Short time lapse video demonstrates the concept and operation of earthquake rapid response systems available through GeoSIG.
Case Study:TGV High-Speed Railway, France
Emergency Stop System TGV Méditerranée
Passengers on the French south-east high-speed train traveling between Valence and Marseille at nearly 300 km/h are probably not aware that every 10 kilometers they pass near a seismic detection device, which was designed and installed by the CEA's Environmental Assessment and Monitoring Department (DASE), in partnership with SNCF, the French rail company.
The aim of the system is to automatically slow down or if necessary stop the train a few seconds after detection of an earth tremor liable to deform the tracks, to avoid it reaching the damaged areas at full speed.
Configuration of the system designed by the CEA/DASE consists of 24 measurement stations, set 10 km apart, are installed along the tracks in the seismic area between Valence, Marseille and Nîmes.
In the event of ground motion above set thresholds, a central sign posting unit in Marseille, collecting and processing all station data, sends an order to slow down or stop trains to the SNCF system which centralizes all safety alarms for the line.
At the same time, a separate automatic decision support system, located in Bruyères-le-Châtel, integrates data from 14 stations of the CEA's national seismic monitoring network, to confirm (or not) the presence of an earthquake within a 10 minute interval. This allows the SNCF to take an informed decision (resume normal operation of the line or inspect the tracks).
The devices are connected via the SNCF's fiber optic networks and dedicated lines.
For reliability and security reasons, the emergency stop system's main features are redunded. This system is a world first. Only Japan has set up a system of this kind, but based on a different principle and not suited to the seismic conditions found in south-east France.
System performs seismic processing, data centralizing and real-time decision support based on data from the 24 stations and alarm transmission.
Automatic alarm confirmation system is utilised, integrating data from CEA network seismometers. These data provide additional information due to the sensors' superior resolution and more extensive geographical distribution, and are therefore valuable for locating earthquakes and determining their magnitude.
Case Study:Sakhalin Oil and Gas, Russia
Sakhalin Oil and Gas
Sakhalin is a large elongated island stretching more than 900 km from North to South, at the Far East of Russia, in the North Pacific. It is known that the seismic hazards on the island have a high probability of occurrence with a high degree of uncertainty.
Sakhalin Energy Investment Company Ltd (SEIC) is the operator of the Sakhalin II project under a Production Sharing Agreement with the Russian Federation. Sakhalin II is the world’s biggest integrated oil and gas project consisting of 3 offshore oil production platforms, 300 km offshore and more than 800 km onshore oil and gas pipelines, onshore processing facility, an oil export terminal and the construction of Russia’s first liquefied natural gas plant.
Aiming to be the new energy source for the entire Asia-Pacific area, SEIC had to implement a successful investment protection strategy in the region that is affected by seismic activity, therefore sought for comprehensive solutions in relation to the routing of pipelines to safely deliver the energy source to the identified customer base. These solutions were not limited to safety measures against direct effects of the seismic hazards but also indirect ones, such as landslides, avalanche, mudflow, subsidence, and on.
The onshore pipeline solution along the Sakhalin Island was impossible to achieve without passing through identified fault locations where extra protection was needed in the form of thicker walled pipe, special trench profiles which allowed for pipe movement plus block valves either side of most fault crossings as an extra safety measure in the event of a destructive earthquake. The offshore pipelines do not cross any active geological faults.In addition to these constructional safety measures, SEIC implemented a comprehensive monitoring and management infrastructure, Pipeline Operating Management System (POMS), featuring several state-of-the-art monitoring, remote operated block valve, data collection and interpretation components to achieve a rapid and prompt response to any potential damage.
GeoSIG supplied the Seismic Monitoring and Rapid Response System that, in case of an earthquake, measures the local accelerations, generated a detailed shakemap, compares the accelerations with the design limits of the facilities and generate alarms accordingly. The supplied instrumentation consists of field stations with borehole accelerometers and intelligent seismic recorders with associated peripheral equipment designed to work under the harsh environmental conditions. In addition a system central cabinet is supplied featuring hardware and specialised software to facilitate full configuration, operation and interfacing within the SEIC's local and remote systems. GeoSIG Shakemap software application has been extensively customised to meet the specific requirements of SEIC including the addition of an online interactive web-based interface.
Utilising the GeoSIG system, SEIC can very quickly analyse the effect of an earthquake and determine if it is safe to continue to operate or that they have to shut down for inspection. It will also help SEIC greatly in estimating where to focus the inspection efforts and possible emergency response. The location of a potential pipeline leak might be hard to spot if it is covered with 2 meter snow.
Brief description of the operation topology of the system is as follows:
1) The field stations give hard wired alarm contacts to the POMS. The alarms are at 25% and 75% of the Strength Level Earthquake (SLE) and will alert the Pipeline operator instantaneously in case of a shake in excess of 25 or 75% SLE. The field stations are also connected to the central Seismic Network Processor trough the existing Process Control Domain.
2) The ShakeMap application is available to all SEIC employees via SEIC intranet. Pipeline support staff and Geomatic engineers can all analyse the earthquake information and advise how to respond.
3) All SEIC employees can also see the three signals from each field station on a map of the island in a graphical format using OSIsoft-PI Processbook.
4) SEIC Geomatics engineers will download the calibrated shakemap of measured and estimated ground motion from the ShakeMap application and superimpose this over the map of the island with all geohazards (landslides, fault crossings, etc). They will analyse the combined data and produce a survey plan to determine if geohazards have changed their state.
13 x Acelerometers Downhole Triaxial Force Balance Accelerometer AC-43-DH
downhole Triaxial Force Balance Accelerometer
13 x Recorders Strong Motion Recorder / Measuring System GMS-18
Strong Motion Recorder / Measuring System
13 x Peripheral Units Timing Module
Timing Module Accesories
1 x Data Aquisistion And Processing Centre
Electronic Cabinet Computer Software
Rack-1 Computer GeoDAS
Case Study:Istanbul Metropolitan Area, Turkey
Istanbul Metropolitan Area
GeoSIG has maintained a strong presence in countries where experts have reasons to suspect that likelihood of severe earthquakes has the highest risk of requiring interventions in the form of earthquake monitoring solutions.
GeoSIG has formed relationships with partners to ensure that earthquake monitoring systems provide the customer with solutions meeting output reporting requirements.
Istanbul, the demographic and economic heart of Turkey, has a 70% probability for an earthquake with a magnitude above 7.2 in the next 25 years. The infamous mega-city thus requires a system for Early Warning (EWS) for a safe shutdown of many important facilities and Rapid Response (RRS) for disaster management.
The scope of the system includes not only a turnkey, state-of-the-art metropolitan alarm basis but also the structural monitoring of historical and vital buildings towards a better understanding of seismic hazards in a populated and valuable geographical area by contributing to seismic data management systems.
The outputs of the EWS comprise of real time data streams from remote stations, processing of these streams and generating an earthquake alert of a destructive seismic earthquake, distributable to several institutions enabling vital information to be supplied to relevant officials and agencies.
The outputs of the RRS consists of processing of onsite seismic data continuously, seismic event triggered SMS messages from remote stations summarizing seismic event parameters, evaluation of incoming event parameters and processing these data to obtain damage estimation and event severity distribution across the metropolitan area, distribution of these results via real-time communication to relevant officials and agencies.
Overall outputs also include the monitoring and testing of the full system in use at periodical intervals.
152 Triaxial Accelerometers
152 Multichannel Recorders
(On Line / Dial Up / Off Line)
2 System Operation Centres
4 Emergency Response Centres
Case Study:Nuclear Power Plant, Lithuania
Earthquake Early Warning System NPP Lithuania
Reviews of several Soviet-built nuclear power plants have shown that most of them have an unknown earthquake safety or are under-designed seismically. In the cases where seismic strengthening of the buildings and equipment is not feasible due to economical, political and timing reasons, an active reactor protection system based on an earthquake early warning system may be the answer, similar to the one installed recently in the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) in Lithuania.
This early warning system consists of six seismic stations encircling INPP at a radial distance of approximately 30 km and a seventh station at INPP. Each station includes three seismic substations each 500 m apart. The ground motion at each station is measured continuously by three accelerometers and a seismometer. The data is transmitted via telemetry to the control centre at INPP. Early warning alarms are generated if an acceleration threshold is exceeded.
The alarm is used to stop the nuclear reaction by insertion of the control rods. In the RBMK reactors at Ignalina, only 2.5 seconds are required for the insertion of the control rods. The pre- warning time provided by the seismic alarm system for earthquakes occurring at distances greater than 30 km from the site is approximately 4 seconds. Therefore, the nuclear reaction can be stopped before the earthquake arrives.
For further information you can download the paper here
Case Study:Honam High-Speed Railway, South Korea
Honam High-Speed Railway, South Korea
Download Case Study Honam High-Speed Railway
BackgroundThe Honam high-speed railway project was a large, national project budgeted at US $7 billion to build a new Korea Train Express KTX) to connect Osong station and Songjeong station in Gwangju, South Korea. The railway, which is 185 kilometers, began operation in April 2015. Thanks to this new high-speed train, travel time between Yongsan Station (Seoul) to Songjeong Station (Gwangju) was originally 2hr 39min, and is now reduced to 1hr 33min. The train’s maximum speed is 300km/h.
ChallengeThis is a high-speed rail service that traverses roadbed, bridges and tunnels, and stops at ve stations. The train is equipped with 410 seats -- a signi cant number of passengers. In recent years, experts have warned that the Korean Peninsula is no longer safe from strong shock waves and called for disaster preventive measures. It was essential to have proper seismic and structural monitoring. Project leaders wanted to monitor the health and response of the infrastructure under operational- and earthquake-imposed loads as well as to improve safe operation of the trains. They wanted to have a system in place that would provide data they could use to establish a database at a national level for response to earthquake at facilities, and use this as reference/supporting data for the legislation or revision of earthquake- resistant design. They also wanted to support earthquake disaster reduction activity for prompt damage evaluation and response after an earthquake, and to help generate a seismic intensity distribution chart by measuring seismic acceleration.
SolutionSuch an important project required a top-level engineering service with more than 20 years’ experience in seismic monitoring. Our partner, EJtech, was contracted to create the Honam high-speed railway Earthquake Monitoring System, which establishes a system to ef ciently and safely control the high-speed train upon earthquake.
The CTC real-time high-speed railway seismic monitoring system encompasses 18 sites -- 13 bridges and ve stations are monitored. For each bridge, four GeoSIG AC-71 sensors and three AC-73 sensors were installed, as well as a GMSplus recorder and two GMSplus6 recorders. The installations were located in the girder center, the pier top, the pier bottom and a free eld location. For each station, three AC-71 sensors and two AC-73 sensors were installed, as well as a GMSplus and a GMSplus6. The installations were located in the top oor, the lowest oor and a free eld location.
The system performs real-time earthquake and structural monitoring, issues warnings in case of exceedance of prede ned thresholds, offers interactive surveillance, provides data for structural integrity evaluation and noti cations for safe train operations. It also provides a connection between MPSS and other related organizations.
Another Solution using GeoSIG instruments and a capable Partner effectively showing that quality and reliability can also be cost-effective.