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Seismic Instrumentation and Monitoring of Dams

 

 
Introduction
• What is Seismic Instrumentation and Monitoring of Dams?
• Why Dams need Seismic Instrumentation and Monitoring?
• What are the advantages of Seismic Instrumentation and Monitoring in Dams? 

Methodology & Technology
• How does seismic instrumentation and monitoring work? 

Our Solutions for Seismic Instrumentation and Monitoring of Dams
• GMS Series Recorders for distributed and hybrid systems
• CR-6 Series Modular Multichannel Recording System for central and hybrid systems
• A wide variety of high quality sensors to measure acceleration, velocity, displacement, strain, tilt and environmental phenomena.
• Software solutions with highly customisable options 


Introduction
• What is Seismic Instrumentation and Monitoring of Dams? 

Seismic Instrumentation and Monitoring of Dams is a particular branch in Structural Health and Response Monitoring, which is an innovative method of monitoring structural status and performance without otherwise affecting the structure itself and under earthquake excitations. It utilises also features from shutdown / notification systems. The basic concept is to deploy strong motion accelerometers and associated data acquisition / analysis systems in a dam to detect exceedance of allowed performance criteria as well as identify and verify structural behaviour. 

• Why Dams need Seismic Instrumentation and Monitoring?

The strength and serviceability of a dam can be considerably – even terminally – reduced by natural or human-made events, earthquakes, extreme levels of operation, uncontrolled structural changes and various other influences.

Utilising seismic instrumentation and monitoring systems, timely notifications about any potential problems can be generated and behaviour of the dam can be monitored. The emerging use of seismic instrumentation and monitoring especially in the last decades, is a result of the increasing need for the monitoring of hazards and associated risks as well as a better management of the safety issues concerning the dams. This is further enhanced by the ongoing development and sophistication of sensors, data acquisition systems, communication technologies and other advances in technology. 

In the past we have seen significant structural failures in dams due to earthquakes, such as Shih Kang Dam in Taiwan during the Chi-Chi earthquake in 1999. Events such as these drastically show how vulnerable dams can be if exposed to earthquake ground motions, ground deformation or overload. 

Despite the progress in the dynamic analysis of dams, it is still not possible to reliably predict the behavior of dams during very strong ground shaking due to the difficulty in modelling the inelastic behavior of dams, the insufficient information on the spatial variation of ground motion and other factors. It is reported that the May 12, 2008 Wenchuan earthquake has damaged 1803 dams and reservoirs, and 403 hydropower plants with an installed capacity of 3.3GW (ref. Wieland, M., “Features of seismic hazard in large dam projects and strong motion monitoring of large dams”, 2009). 

The factors that eventually lead to failure as well as their severity and effect on the structure can be measured and monitored with GeoSIG Seismic Instrumentation and Monitoring systems. 

• What are the advantages of Seismic Instrumentation and Monitoring? 

GeoSIG Seismic Instrumentation and Monitoring systems not only help reducing risks and costs, but also help avoiding disaster by its notifications which allows to initiate early damage detection and therefore helps saving lives as well as assets. 

Utilising the acquired data by the system, fundamental features of a dam may be identified such as the damping within the large dam structure, amplification of the ground motion along the path from the foundation or abutments to the crest, wave propagation within the structure, differential motions between abutments, natural frequencies, mode shapes and so on. 

In addition, the system allows to rapidly evaluate the structural response thus provides a highly useful measure for decision making whether to allow normal operation or to initiate a more comprehensive inspection before doing so. 

The ideal Seismic Instrumentation and Monitoring system provides you with on-demand information about your structure's measured features, as well as warnings concerning any exceedance detected. Therefore also significantly reduces repair costs through early damage detection, making the monitored structure safer, increasing the cost efficiency of its maintenance. 

Advantages of Seismic Instrumentation and Monitoring for Dams include: 
• increased understanding of in-situ structural behaviour and characteristics 
• assurance of structural resilience and serviceability 
• reliable information based engagement of safety devices 
• opportunity to facilitate the timely warning of the population living in the downstream valley 
• factual data to check and to improve the seismic design criteria of the dam 
• decreased down-time for inspection and repair 
• development of rational maintenance/management strategies 
• increased value of the assets when compared to non-monitored properties 
   and 
• an increased effectiveness in allocation of scarce resources. 

Additionally Seismic Instrumentation and Monitoring enables and encourages the reliable use of new and innovative materials and designs in engineering. 


Methodology & Technology
• How does Seismic Instrumentation and Monitoring work? 

Each dam is unique, therefore the monitoring system that must be applied is also singular. However there are typical system topologies which are recommended and have been in use since several years with success, which is fully covered by the long GeoSIG experience through more than 200 dam systems in place. In close cooperation with the owner/contractor, GeoSIG delivers tailor-made Seismic Instrumentation and Monitoring systems for each project. 

Typically an absolute minimum of 4 measuring points is foreseen, one in the base of the dam, one on the crest, one at an abutment and one at a freefield point at a distance that is approximately 3-4 times the height of the dam.  Following image shows a recommended seismic instrumentation topology of a dam, please refer to the References section for further information.



At each measuring point a high dynamic mechanical force balance accelerometer is deployed. These devices collect raw acceleration data and transfer it to a Data Acquisition System (DAS). From the DAS, the data is collected and sampled. It can then be transmitted to an offsite location or stored locally for automatic, intelligent processing. The reliable level of remote monitoring eliminates the need for site visits. The system allows for tools to remove mundane data, noise, thermal, or other unwanted effects before storage, and to make data interpretation easier, faster and more accurate. Diagnostics convert abstract data signals into useful information about the structural response and condition. 

Trigger levels for issuing warning signals or notifications (when previously defined values are exceeded) will be set according to its particular properties and capabilities, with reference to design, resistance, durability and stability. 

GeoSIG Seismic Instrumentation and Monitoring solutions allow for the application of the Design versus Measurement methodology in terms of exceedance checks and notifications. Detailed state of the art and customisable data analyses are then used to enable reliable alerts and notifications in terms of email, SMS or visual and audible alarms. They even can be provided as automated relays to turn on or off desired machinery or operations. The results are automatically documented in customisable reports and can be automatically printed or transmitted to various recipients to enable rational, knowledge-based engineering decisions. 

In essence, the variety of measurement, data acquisition and interpretation as well as notification and reporting techniques utilised by GeoSIG Seismic Instrumentation and Monitoring systems create “intelligent dams” that are safer, long-lasting, more secure, and cheaper to operate, maintain and insure. 

References
COSMOS Instrumental Systems for Diagnostics of Seismic Response of Bridges and Dams 2001
Darbre G R Strong Motion Instrumentation of Dams 1995
Darbre G R Design Implementation of strong-motion Instrumentation Arrays in Dams 1992
Darbre G R State of practice in earthquake analysis of dams 2000
Darbre G R Dam Safety in Switzerland 2005
Fedock J USGS OFR 82-469 Strong Motion Instrumentation of Dams
FEMA-65 Federal Guidelines for Dam and Safety 2005
ICOLD B112 Neotectonic and dams Recommendations and case histories 1998
ICOLD B46 Seismicity and dam design 1983
ICOLD B52 Earthquake analysis for dams 1986
ICOLD B60 Dam monitoring General considerations 1988
ICOLD B62 Inspection of dams after earthquakes Guidelines 1988
ICOLD B68 Monitoring of dams and their foundations State of the art 1989
ICOLD B72 Selecting seismic parameters for large dams Guidelines 1989
ICOLD B74 Tailings Dam Safety 1989
ICOLD B87 Improvement of existing dam monitoring Recommendations and case histories 1992
ICOLD B98 Tailings Dams and Seismicity Review and Recommendations 1995
ICOLD B99 Dam Failures Statistical Analysis 1995
ICOLD Position paper Water Power dam safety and earthquakes Aug 2010
The National Academy of Sciences National Research Council Safety of Existing Dams 1983
Wieland M Earthquake safety of concrete dams 1994
Wieland M Earthquake Safety of Existing Dams 2006
Wieland M Earthquake Safety of Existing Dams 2006 Presentation
Wieland M Seismic Aspects of Dam Design 2002
Wieland M Strong Motion Instrumentation of Dams EN 2002
Wieland M Strong Motion Instrumentation of Dams Response 2002
Wieland M The many Features of the Seismic Hazard in Large Dam Projects 2009

Selected Dams Instrumented with GeoSIG Instruments


In the past decades, GeoSIG Instruments have been delivered to more than 230 dams in more than 35 countries, worldwide. Some of the dams around the world, which are instrumented with GeoSIG Instruments, are listed below.
 

Country

Project

Algeria

Ben Taïba

Algeria

Tichi Haf

Argentina

Punta Negra Dam

Argentina

Rio V

Argentina

Caracoles

Argentina

Potrerillos

Argentine

Boca Del Rio Dam

Bosnia

Jablanica

Bosnia

Grabovica

Bosnia

Salakovac

Brazil

Dique 3

Bulgaria

Beli Iskar

Canada

La Gabelle

Canada

La Trenchen

Canada

La Tuque

Chile

Sierra Gorda

Chile

Las Tortolas Dam

Chile

Caren Dam

Chile

Rucatayo

Chile

Caren

Chile

Ovejeria

Chile

El Trigo

Chile

Angostura

Chile

Minera Esperenza

Chile

Caren

Chile

Caren

Chile

Las Tortolas

Chile

Mauro

China

Wudu Dam

China

Changjang River

China

Roseires Dam

China

Thika

China

Ertan

Costa Rica

Pirris Dam

Croatia

Diale

Croatia

Peruca

Croatia

Prancevic

Cyprus

Solea

Czech Republic.

Orlik

Egypt

Assouan

Ethiopia

Dire

France

Ile de France

France

Agly

Georgia

Inguri

Greece

Aposelemis Dam

Greece

Papadia Dam

Greece

Agia Varvara

Greece

Gadoura

Greece

Papadia

Greece

Pramoritsa

Greece

Agia Varvara Dam

Greece

Amari

Greece

Ilarionas

Greece

Alexandroupolis

Greece

Evinos

Greece

Gratini

India

Tansa

India

Vaitaran

India

Dul Hasti

India

Ranjit Sagar

India

Tamil Nadu

Indonesia

Sempor

Indonesia

Sermo

Indonesia

Kedungombo

Iran

Gotvand Dam

Iran

Aras 2 Dam

Iran

Aras 2

Iran

Gotvand

Iran

Khansar

Iran

Bijar

Iran

Kalpush

Iran

Sourk

Iran

Goloul

Iran

Tajik

Iran

Zamkan

Iran

Ariobarzan

Iran

Baft

Iran

Gareh Agahach

Iran

Golfaraj

Iran

Mashkidolia

Iran

Meydanak

Iran

Zivieh

Iran

Kamaneh

Iran

Kirabat

Iran

Shiyan

Iran

Zolachai

Iran

Roodbal

Iran

Kosar

Iran

Shahryar

Iran

Sirjan

Iran

Sivand

Iran

Damghan

Iran

Gilan-E-Gharb

Iran

Kangir

Iran

Mamloo

Iran

Marvak

Iran

Sangeh Siah

Iran

Siah Zakh

Iran

Soleyman Shah

Iran

Agh-Chay

Iran

Baneh

Iran

Doosti

Iran

Jareh

Iran

Karun III

Iran

Mahabad

Iran

Marun

Iran

Tabarak Abad

Iran

Tangab

Iran

Alborz

Iran

Reis-Ali-Delvari

Iran

Salman-e-Farsi

Iran

Izadkhast

Iran

Karkheh

Iran

Kowsar

Iran

Taham

Iran

Gilane Gharb

Italy

Lentini

Italy

Celone Dam

Italy

Ponte Barca

Italy

Bilancino

Italy

Rendina

Italy

Castrola

Italy

Archiciaro

Italy

Lampegianno

Italy

Menta

Italy

Metramom

Italy

Pietrarossa

Italy

Trigno

Jordan

Wala

Jordan

Hassan Addakhil

Jordan

Karameh

Jordan

Mansom Eddahlsi

Jordan

Smir

Kenya

Turkwel

Korea

Seong Duk Dam

Korea

Buhang Dam

Korea

Buhang Dam

Korea

Angye

Korea

Daeam

Korea

Daegok

Korea

Dalbang

Korea

Guangdong

Korea

Hoengseong

Korea

Milyang

Korea

Nakdonggang

Korea

Sayeon

Korea

Seonam

Korea

Suye

Korea

Yongdam

Korea

Andong

Korea

Boryeong

Korea

Buan

Korea

Chungju

Korea

Hapchon

Korea

Imha

Korea

Juam

Korea

Seomjingang

Korea

Soyanggang

Korea

Unmum

Korea

Young Chon

Korea

Gampo

Korea

Gampo

Macedonia

Kozjak

Maroc

Timkit Dam

Maroc

Tiouine Dam

Maroc

Tamalout Dam

Marocco

Zerrar Dam

Morocco

Tiouine

Morocco

Smba

Morocco

Mulay Hassan Ben El Mehdi

Morocco

Prince Moulay Abdellah

Morocco

Tanger Méditerranée

Morocco

Wirgane

Morocco

Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdallah

Morocco

Sidi Said

Morocco

Asfalou

Mozambique

Cahora Bassa

Nepal

Tehri

Pakistan

Chasma

Pakistan

Chashma

Pakistan

Keyal Khwar

Pakistan

Mangla

Romania

Gura Apelor – Retezat

Singapore

Jatiluhur Dam

Singapore

Sempor Dam

Slovenia

Dravograd

Slovenia

Fala

Slovenia

Formin

Slovenia

Markovci

Slovenia

Melje

Slovenia

Otok

Slovenia

Ozbalt

Slovenia

Vuhred

Slovenia

Vuzenica

Slovenia

Zlatolicje

Slovenia

Medove

Slovenia

Moste

South Africa

Kouga

Spain

Guadalorce

Spain

Charco Redondo

Spain

Manzanares

Spain

Riano

Spain

La Breña II

Spain

Salime

Spain

Manzanares Dam

Spain

Montearagon

Spain

San Diego

Spain

Riaño

Spain

Tous

Sudan

Merowe

Sudan

Merowe

Taiwan

Feitsui

Taiwan

Pao Shan

Taiwan

Bao Shan

Taiwan

Lan-Tam

Taiwan

Shinsan

Tunisia

Moula

Turkey

Beyhan Dam

Turkey

Kandil Dam

Turkey

Arkun Dam

Turkey

Kavsak Dam

Turkey

Kigi

Turkey

Yedigoze

Turkey

Deriner

Turkey

Cine

Turkey

Cindere

Turkey

Birecik

Turkey

Berke

United Kingdom

Raous

USA

Hosler Dam (Exchange)

USA

San Pablo

USA

Hosler

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